بررسی تأثیر حضور آلایندههای سوخت آند بر عملکرد پیل سوختی غشاء پلیمری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر، تهران

2 صنعتی امیرکبیر*مهندسی مکانیک

3 دانشکده مهندسی مکانیک دانشگاه صنعتی امیر کبیر

چکیده

در این پژوهش، شبیه‌سازی جریان تک فاز و دوفاز، هم-دما، گذرا و در حالت دوبعدی برای سمت آند پیل سوختی غشاء پلیمری صورت گرفته است. در این تحقیق، ابتدا اثر ورود مونواکسید کربن به همراه هیدروژن ورودی به آند بر عملکرد پیل سوختی به‌صورت پایا موردبررسی قرارگرفته است. سپس رفتار گذرای پیل سوختی تحت مسمومیت مونواکسید کربن و تأثیر تزریق هوا به هیدروژن بر میزان بازگشت چگالی جریان ازدسترفته بررسی شده است. به‌منظور اعتبارسنجی مدل، نتایج عددی به‌دست آمده با نتایج آزمایشگاهی مقایسه شده‌اند و تطابق قابل قبولی مشاهده شده است. بر اساس نتایج، حتی در غلظت‌های بسیار کم مونواکسید کربن نیز چگالی جریان به‌شدت کاهش می‌یابد )کاهش حدود 70 %چگالی جریان در غلظت ppm 10 در حدود 30 دقیقه(. تزریق مقدار کمی هوا به هیدروژن ورودی منجر به بازگشت سریع چگالی جریان ازدسترفته می‌گردد)بازگشت حدود 80 %چگالی جریان اولیه در مدت 2 دقیقه در اثر تزریق 5 %هوا در غلظت ppm 53 مونواکسید کرین(. افزودن درصد هوای بالاتر تنها منجر به بهبود ناچیزی در عملکرد پیل سوختی می‌گردد. ر عملکرد پیل سوختی می‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of the Effect of Anode Fuel Contaminants on the Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell

نویسندگان [English]

  • abbas moradi bilondi 1
  • Mohammad J. Kermani 2
  • hadi heidary 1
  • Mohammadmahdi abdollahzadehsangroudi 3
1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), 424 Hafez Ave., Tehran, Iran, P. Code 15875-4413
2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), 424 Hafez Ave., Tehran, Iran, P. Code 15875-4413
3 Department of mechanical engineering, Amirkabir university of technology
چکیده [English]

In the present work, a two-dimensional, transient, two-phase (two-fluid model), multicomponent model is considered for the anode-side of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The cell is assumed to include flow channel, gas diffusion layer, and catalyst layer. The discretized governing equations are numerically solved on a non-uniform grid with an in-house developed code. First, the steady-state effects of introducing Carbon-Monoxide-contaminated hydrogen on the cell performance were investigated. Then, the dynamic behavior of the cell under Carbon-Monoxide poisoning and the effects of air bleeding on the recovery of the output current density were investigated. The results were validated against experimental data, and it was indicated that even introducing a trace amount of contamination leads to significant degradation of cell performance (about 70% of output current was lost within 30 minutes when the hydrogen is pre-mixed with 10 part per million of Carbon Monoxide). Injecting a small amount of air into the anode stream resulted in a fast recovery of the lost current density (by injecting about 5% air into anode fuel, 80% of the output current was recovered within 2 minutes at 53 part per million Carbon Monoxide). Higher air bleeding ratio only resulted in minor improvement of the cell performance.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell
  • two-phase flow
  • numerical simulation
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning
  • air bleeding
[1]  N. Zamel, X. Li, Effect of ntaminants on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 37(3) (2011) 292-329.
[2]  N. Zamel, X. Li, Transient analysis of carbon monoxide poisoning and oxygen bleeding in a PEM fuel cell anode catalyst layer, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 33(4) (2008) 1335-1344.
[3]  J. Baschuk, X. Li, Carbon monoxide poisoning of proton exchange membrane fuel cells, International Journal of Energy Research, 25(8) (2001) 695-713.
[4]  R.J. Bellows, E.P. Marucchi-Soos, D.T. Buckley, Analysis of reaction kinetics for carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide on polycrystalline platinum relative to fuel cell operation, Industrial & engineering chemistry research, 35(4) (1996) 1235-1242.
[5]  J. Divisek, H.-F. Oetjen, V. Peinecke, V. Schmidt, U. Stimming, Components for PEM fuel cell  systems using hydrogen and CO containing fuels, Electrochimica Acta, 43(24) (1998) 3811-3815.
[6] T. Springer, T. Rockward, T. Zawodzinski, S. Gottesfeld, Model for polymer electrolyte fuel cell operation on reformate feed: effects of CO, H; 2 dilution, and high fuel utilization, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 148(1) (2001) A11-A23.
[7] T. Springer, T. Zawodzinski, S. Gottesfeld, Modeling of polymer electrolyte fuel cell performance with reformate fuel feed streams, Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States), 1997.
[8] J. Baschuk, X. Li, Modelling CO poisoning and O2 bleeding in a PEM fuel cell anode, International Journal of Energy Research, 27(12) (2003) 1095-1116.
[9] T. Zhou, H. Liu, A 3D model for PEM fuel cells operated on reformate, Journal of Power Sources, 138(1) (2004) 101-110.
[10]  H. Chu, C. Wang, W. Liao, W. Yan, Transient behavior of CO poisoning of the anode catalyst layer of a PEM fuel cell, Journal of Power Sources, 159(2) (2006) 1071-1077.
[11]  C.-P. Wang, H.-S. Chu, Transient analysis of multicomponent transport with carbon monoxide poisoning effect of a PEM fuel cell, Journal of power sources, 159(2) (2006) 1025-1033.
[12] U. Stimming, H. Oetjen, V. Schmidt, F. Trila, Performance Data of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Using H2/CO as Fuel, J. Electrochem. Soc, 143(12) (1996) 3838-3842.
[13]  M. Murthy, M. Esayian, A. Hobson, S. MacKenzie, W.-k. Lee, J. Van Zee, Performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell exposed to transient CO concentrations, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 148(10) (2001) A1141-A1147.
[14]  Z. Qi, C. He, A. Kaufman, Effect of CO in the anode fuel on the performance of PEM fuel cell cathode, Journal of Power Sources, 111(2) (2002) 239-247.
[15]  M. Murthy, M. Esayian, W.-k. Lee, J. Van Zee, The effect of temperature and pressure on the performance of a PEMFC exposed to transient CO concentrations, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 150(1) (2003) A29-A34.
[16]  K.K. Bhatia, C.-Y. Wang, Transient carbon monoxide poisoning of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell operating on diluted hydrogen feed, Electrochimica Acta, 49(14) (2004) 2333-2341.
[17]  M. Hafttananian, A. Ramiar, A. Ranjbar, Novel techniques of oxygen bleeding for polymer electrolyte fuel cells under impure anode feeding and poisoning condition: A computational study using OpenFOAM®, Energy Conversion and Management, 122 (2016) 564-579.
[18]  L.-Y. Sung, B.-J. Hwang, K.-L. Hsueh, F.-H. Tsau, Effects of anode air bleeding on the performance of CO-poisoned proton-exchange membrane fuel cells, Journal of Power Sources, 195(6) (2010) 1630-1639.
[19] P. Ribeirinha, M. Abdollahzadeh, J. Sousa, M. Boaventura, A. Mendes, Modelling of a high- temperature polymer  electrolyte  membrane  fuel  cell integrated with a methanol steam reformer cell, Applied Energy, 202 (2017) 6-19.
[20] M. Ishii, K. Mishima, Two-fluid model and hydrodynamic constitutive relations, Nuclear Engineering and design, 82(2-3) (1984) 107-126.
[21] X. Liu, G. Lou, Z. Wen, Three-dimensional two- phase flow model of proton exchange membrane fuel cell with parallel gas distributors, Journal of Power Sources, 195(9) (2010) 2764-2773.
[22] H. Meng, A two-phase non-isothermal mixed-domain PEM fuel cell model and its application to two- dimensional simulations, Journal of Power Sources, 168(1) (2007) 218-228.
[23] H. Meng, Multi-dimensional liquid water transport in the cathode of a PEM fuel cell with consideration of the micro-porous layer (MPL), international journal of hydrogen energy, 34(13) (2009) 5488-5497.
[24] T. Berning, D.M. Lu, N. Djilali, Three-dimensional computational analysis  of  transport  phenomena  in  a PEM fuel cell, Journal of power sources, 106(1) (2002) 284-294.
[25] M.K. Baboli, M. Kermani, A two-dimensional, transient, compressible isothermal and two-phase model for the air-side electrode of PEM fuel cells, Electrochimica Acta, 53(26) (2008) 7644-7654.
[26]  A. Ramiar, A. Mahmoudi, Q. Esmaili, M. Abdollahzadeh, Influence of cathode flow pulsation on performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cell with interdigitated gas distributors, Energy, 94 (2016) 206-217.
[27] H. Meng, Numerical investigation of transient responses of a PEM fuel cell using a two-phase non- isothermal mixed-domain model, Journal of Power Sources, 171(2) (2007) 738-746.
[28] N. Khajeh-Hosseini-Dalasm, K. Fushinobu, K. Okazaki, Three-dimensional transient two-phase study of the cathode side of a PEM fuel cell, international journal of hydrogen energy, 35(9) (2010) 4234-4246.
[29] U. Pasaogullari, C. Wang, Liquid water transport in gas diffusion layer of polymer electrolyte fuel cells, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 151(3) (2004) A399-A406.
[30] X. Liu, W. Tao, Z. Li, Y. He, Three-dimensional transport model of PEM fuel cell with straight flow channels, Journal of power sources, 158(1) (2006) 25-35.
[31] C.-H. Min, A novel three-dimensional, two-phase and non-isothermal numerical model for proton exchange membrane fuel cell, Journal of Power Sources, 195(7) (2010) 1880-1887.
[32] E. Ticianelli, C. Derouin, A. Redondo, S. Srinivasan, Methods to advance technology of proton exchange membrane fuel cells, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 135(9) (1988) 2209-2214.
[33] S. Lee, S. Mukerjee, E. Ticianelli, J. McBreen, Electrocatalysis of CO tolerance in hydrogen oxidation reaction in PEM fuel cells, Electrochimica Acta, 44(19) (1999) 3283-3293.