نکات کاربردی در طراحی ساختمان‌های متداول در ایران با تکیه بر تهویه طبیعی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 هیئت علمی. دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 گروه تبدیل انرژی، دانشکده مهندسی مکانیک، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

4 رئیس بخش انرژی عضو هییت علمی

چکیده

در این تحقیق راه‌های به‌کارگیری تهویه طبیعی در معماری متداول ساختمان‌ها مورد بررسی قرارگرفته است. در معماری متداول ایران عناصری همچون میان تالار، نورگیر سقفی، حیاط، انواع گذرگاه‌های عمودی شامل داکت تأسیساتی و کانال آسانسور، پارکینگ، راه‌پله و خرپشته به کار می‌رود و می‌تواند برای تهویه طبیعی به‌کار برده شود. تهویه با نورگیر سقفی، تهویه با گذرگاه‌های عمودی در ساختمان مانند آتریم و داکت، تهویه با ترکیب راه‌پله و داکت و تهویه عبوری مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. از نتایج مهم این تحقیق می‌توان به تعیین اندازه‌ی بازشوهای مناسب برای تهویه طبیعی در ساختمان اشاره کرد. در تهویه با گذرگاه‌های عمودی هوا مانند داکت تأسیساتی و آتریم، نسبت مساحت سطح مقطع گذرگاه به مساحت بازشو از اتاق به آن گذرگاه باید حدود 87/0 قطر هیدرولیکی آن گذرگاه باشد. علاوه بر این مساحت بازشوی اتاق به بیرون حدود 5/1 برابر مساحت بازشوی اتاق به گذرگاه در نظر گرفته شود. نتایج بررسی نشان داد که در شیوه‌ی تهویه با نورگیر سقفی حداکثر مساحت بازشوی خروجی مستقل از زیربنا و برابر با 1 مترمربع در نظر گرفته شود. در شیوه‌ی تهویه از طریق ترکیب داکت و راه‌پله مساحت بازشوی قرارگرفته بر روی خرپشته برابر با مساحت سطح مقطع داکت در نظر گرفته شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Tips on Application of Natural Ventilation in Prevalent Buildings in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • seyed amir Mousavian 1
  • Mehdi Maerefat 2
  • Reza Maddahian 3
  • Behroz Mohammadkari 4
1 tarbiat modares university
2 tarbiat modares university
3 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
4 مرکزتحقیقات راه،مسکن و شهرسازی
چکیده [English]

Methods of using natural ventilation in the architecture of the buildings have been studied. Architectural elements such as: the atrium, the ceiling light aperture, the courtyard, the staircase, dome roof, duct of the installations, and vertical channels of the building such as channel of the elevator are widely used in Iranian buildings. Feasibility of using these elements for natural ventilation has been studied taking into account the relevant standards. Significant results of the study are the sizes of the openings suitable for each case of ventilation.  For the ventilation based on vertical paths such as the installation duct or the atrium, the ratio of the path area to the opening to it should be 0.78 times of the hydraulic diameter of the path. The area of the opening of the room to outdoor should 1.5 times of the opening of the room to the path. For ventilation using the light ceiling aperture the area of the opening to outdoor is independent of building area and should be 1 m2.  In ventilation using duct and staircase the should be an opening on the doom roof with area equal to the area of the duct. 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Natural Ventilation
  • Traditional architecture
  • Iran
  • Staircase
  • Duct
  • atrium
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[2] Department of Housing and Urban Development, The nineteenth topic of national building regulations, (2009). (in Persian )
[3] R. Vakilinezhad, F. Mehdizade, S. M. Mofidi, Principles of passive cooling systems in elements Traditional Iranian architecture, Architecture and urban design of Iran, 5(1) (2014) 147-159 (in Persian )
[4] Department of Housing and Urban Development, The Third topic of national building regulations, (2009). (in Persian )
[5] National Fire Protection Association, NFPA 92B: Guide for Smoke Management Systems in Malls, Atria, and Large Areas, (2005).
[6] National Fire Protection Association, NFPA 92A: Recommended practice for smoke-control systems, (2006).
[7] C. Bloyd, M. Comstock, U. G. B. Council, and N. McNabb, APEC Building Codes, Regulations, and Standards, (2013).
[8] American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, A. Handbook, Fundamentals, Atlanta, (2001).
[9] B.S. Institution, BS 5925-1991: Code of Practice for Ventilation Principles and Designing for Natural Ventilation, British Standards Institution, (1991).
[10] A.S. Institution, Building Code of Australia- Volume One, in, (2015).
[11] A.S. Institution, NCC, Building Code of Australia – Guide to Volume One, in, (2015).
[12] S. Institution, IS 3362-1977: Code of practice for natural ventilation of residential buildings (first revision), (1977).
[13] C. WC, Draft National Building Code of India: Part 8 Building Services, Section 1 Lighting and Ventilation (Third Revision of SP 7), (2017).
[14] GB 50736-2012: Code for Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning of Civil Buildings, (2012).
[15] S. Amir Mousavian, M. Maerefat, B.Mohammad Kari, Investigation of natural ventilation in international standards, in: HVACconf-IRSHRAE-3, Imam Khomeini International University , (2018). (in Persian ).
[16] F. Bauman, Buoyancy-driven convection in a rectangular enclosure: experimental results and numerical calculations, in:  American Society of Mechanical Engineers Conference on Heat Transfer in Passive Solar Systems, Orlando, July 27-30, (2013).
[17] A. Emery and J. Lee, The effects of property variations on natural convection in a square enclosure, Journal of Heat Transfer, 121(1) (1999) 57-63.
[18] J.W. Axley, Application of Natural Ventilation for US Commercial Buildings-Climate Suitability Design Strategies & Methods Modeling Studies, (2001).
[19] M. Moghiman and  F. Moradi, Computation of natural ventilation of building using loop analysis, ACECR Journal, 2(1) (2002) 127-140 (in Persian).
[20] A. Haghighi and M. Maerefat, Solar ventilation and heating of buildings in sunny winter days using solar chimney, Sustainable Cities and Society, 10(1) (2014) 72-79.
[21] J. Amnian, M. Maerefat, Gh. Heidarinejad, Investigation on effect of exhaust vents location on reduction of pollution in enclosed car parks, Modares Mechanical Engineering Journal, 16(5) (2016) 70-80 (in Persian).
[22] J. Amnian, M. Maerefat, Gh. Heidarinejad, Offering a method for reducing pollution and criterion for evaluation of ventilation flow in multilevel enclosed parking lots, Modares Mechanical Engineering Journal, 16(5) (2016) 285-297 (in Persian).
[23] Y. Chen, Zheming Tong, Wentao Wu, Holly Samuelson, Ali Malkawi, and Leslie Norford, Achieving natural ventilation potential in practice: Control schemes and levels of automation, Applied energy, 235(1) (2019) 1141-1153.
[24] Castillo, J. Antonio, et al, Natural ventilation of an isolated generic building with a windward window and different windexchangers: CFD validation, sensitivity study and performance analysis., Building Simulation, 12(3) (2019).
[1] Department of Housing and Urban Development, The Fourteenth topic of national building regulations, Nashr Tose'e Iran, (2009). (in Persian )
[2] Department of Housing and Urban Development, The nineteenth topic of national building regulations, (2009). (in Persian )
[3] R. Vakilinezhad, F. Mehdizade, S. M. Mofidi, Principles of passive cooling systems in elements Traditional Iranian architecture, Architecture and urban design of Iran, 5(1) (2014) 147-159 (in Persian )
[4] Department of Housing and Urban Development, The Third topic of national building regulations, (2009). (in Persian )
[5] National Fire Protection Association, NFPA 92B: Guide for Smoke Management Systems in Malls, Atria, and Large Areas, (2005).
[6] National Fire Protection Association, NFPA 92A: Recommended practice for smoke-control systems, (2006).
[7] C. Bloyd, M. Comstock, U. G. B. Council, and N. McNabb, APEC Building Codes, Regulations, and Standards, (2013).
[8] American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, A. Handbook, Fundamentals, Atlanta, (2001).
[9] B.S. Institution, BS 5925-1991: Code of Practice for Ventilation Principles and Designing for Natural Ventilation, British Standards Institution, (1991).
[10] A.S. Institution, Building Code of Australia- Volume One, in, (2015).
[11] A.S. Institution, NCC, Building Code of Australia – Guide to Volume One, in, (2015).
[12] S. Institution, IS 3362-1977: Code of practice for natural ventilation of residential buildings (first revision), (1977).
[13] C. WC, Draft National Building Code of India: Part 8 Building Services, Section 1 Lighting and Ventilation (Third Revision of SP 7), (2017).
[14] GB 50736-2012: Code for Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning of Civil Buildings, (2012).
[15] S. Amir Mousavian, M. Maerefat, B.Mohammad Kari, Investigation of natural ventilation in international standards, in: HVACconf-IRSHRAE-3, Imam Khomeini International University , (2018). (in Persian ).
[16] F. Bauman, Buoyancy-driven convection in a rectangular enclosure: experimental results and numerical calculations, in:  American Society of Mechanical Engineers Conference on Heat Transfer in Passive Solar Systems, Orlando, July 27-30, (2013).
[17] A. Emery and J. Lee, The effects of property variations on natural convection in a square enclosure, Journal of Heat Transfer, 121(1) (1999) 57-63.
[18] J.W. Axley, Application of Natural Ventilation for US Commercial Buildings-Climate Suitability Design Strategies & Methods Modeling Studies, (2001).
[19] M. Moghiman and  F. Moradi, Computation of natural ventilation of building using loop analysis, ACECR Journal, 2(1) (2002) 127-140 (in Persian).
[20] A. Haghighi and M. Maerefat, Solar ventilation and heating of buildings in sunny winter days using solar chimney, Sustainable Cities and Society, 10(1) (2014) 72-79.
[21] J. Amnian, M. Maerefat, Gh. Heidarinejad, Investigation on effect of exhaust vents location on reduction of pollution in enclosed car parks, Modares Mechanical Engineering Journal, 16(5) (2016) 70-80 (in Persian).
[22] J. Amnian, M. Maerefat, Gh. Heidarinejad, Offering a method for reducing pollution and criterion for evaluation of ventilation flow in multilevel enclosed parking lots, Modares Mechanical Engineering Journal, 16(5) (2016) 285-297 (in Persian).
[23] Y. Chen, Zheming Tong, Wentao Wu, Holly Samuelson, Ali Malkawi, and Leslie Norford, Achieving natural ventilation potential in practice: Control schemes and levels of automation, Applied energy, 235(1) (2019) 1141-1153.
[24] Castillo, J. Antonio, et al, Natural ventilation of an isolated generic building with a windward window and different windexchangers: CFD validation, sensitivity study and performance analysis., Building Simulation, 12(3) (2019).
[25] Costanzo, Vincenzo, et al., Natural ventilation potential for residential buildings in a densely built-up and highly polluted environment, Renewable energy, 138(1) (2019) 340-354.
[26] K. N. Patil, S. C. Kaushik, and Ayush Aggarwal, Evaluation of Natural Ventilation Potential for Indoor Thermal Comfort in a Low-Rise Building in Arid and Semi-arid Climates of India, Advances in Energy and Built Environment, 36(1) (2020) 203-221.
[27] Department of Housing and Urban Development, The Fourth topic of national building regulations, (2009). (in Persian)