تأثیر پرینت سه‌بعدی و قالب‌گیری تحت فشار روی ناهمسانگردی نمونه‌های میکرونی ای‌بی‌اس: یک مطالعه‌ی مقایسه‌ای بر اساس همبستگی تصاویر دیجیتال

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشکده مهندسی مکانیک، پردیس دانشکده‌های فنی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 مهندسی مکانیک، دانشکده مهندسی مکانیک، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 دانشکده‌ مهندسی مکانیک، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

در این مقاله ضرایب ناهمسانگردی نرمال در دو نمونه‌ی میکرونی پرینت شده و قالب‌گیری شده تحت فشار از جنس ای‌بی‌اس محاسبه و مقایسه شده است. برای این منظور، نمونه‌های میکرونی پرینت شده و قالب‌گیری شده از جنس ای‌بی‌اس فرآوری شده است. نمونه‌ها با یک دستگاه تست کشش میکرونی و در میدان دید میکروسکوپ نوری کشیده شده و در حین کشش از تغییر شکل نمونه‌ها فیلم تهیه شده است. فریم‌هایی از این فیلم برای پیاده‌سازی همبستگی تصاویر دیجیتال انتخاب شده و توزیع کرنش روی سطح میکرونی به‌ صورت تابعی از تغییر شکل بدست آمده است. نتایج تحلیل همبستگی تصاویر دیجیتال با مشاهدات تجربی توافق کاملی دارد. از روی مولفه‌های کرنش‌های سطحی و با فرض تراکم‌ناپذیری پلاستیک، مقادیر ضرایب ناهمسانگردی نرمال در سطح میکرونی بدست آمده است. نتایج نشان می‌دهد که تغییر شکل پلاستیک در هر دو نمونه با ناهمسانگردی همراه است. در کرنش‌های پلاستیک پائین، نمونه‌ی پرینت شده رفتار ناهمسانگردتری نسبت به نمونه‌ی تک‌لایه از خود نشان می‌دهد. با افزایش کرنش اعمالی، مقدار ضریب ناهمسانگردی برای نمونه‌ی پرینت شده افزایش یافته و برای نمونه‌ی پرس شده کاهش می‌یابد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of 3D-Printing and Compression Molding on Anisotropy of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Micro Specimen: A Comparative Study Based on Digital Image Correlation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sina Nazari-Onlaghi 1
  • Alireza Sadeghi 1
  • morad KARIMPOUR 2
  • Hadi Mohammadi 3
1 School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

This paper aims to calculate and compare normal anisotropy coefficients in 3D-printed and hot-compression molded micro acrylonitrile butadiene styrene specimens. To achieve this goal, micro specimens of additively-printed and compression-molded acrylonitrile butadiene styrene were fabricated and tested using a micro-tensile testing apparatus integrated with an optical microscope while deformation of the specimens was recorded by a camera. Frames from this video were selected and strain distribution on a micron-sized area of interest was obtained using digital image correlation analysis. It was shown that there exists a close agreement between digital image correlation results and in situ optical observations. The plastic anisotropy coefficients (R-values) were then calculated from the surface strains as a function of the applied strain. For this purpose, a through-thickness strain component was obtained assuming plastic incompressibility condition. Results showed that both micro samples revealed an anisotropic response during plastic deformation. At low plastic strains, the printed micro specimen exhibits a more anisotropic behavior than the monolithic micro specimen. As the deformation proceeds, the normal anisotropy coefficient increases for the additively-manufactured micro specimen and decreases for the hot-pressed micro specimen. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
  • 3D printing
  • compression molding
  • Digital image correlation
  • Anisotropy
[1] Attaran, The rise of 3-D printing: The advantages of additive manufacturing over traditional manufacturing, Business Horizons, 60(5) (2017) 677-688.
[2] D. Ngo, A. Kashani, G. Imbalzano, K.T.Q. Nguyen, D. Hui, Additive manufacturing (3D printing): A review of materials, methods, applications and challenges, Composites Part B: Engineering, 143 (2018) 172-196.
[3] C. Ligon, R. Liska, J. Stampfl, M. Gurr, R. Mülhaupt, Polymers for 3D Printing and Customized Additive Manufacturing, Chemical Reviews, 117(15) (2017) 10212-10290.
[4] Duda, L. Raghavan, 3D Metal Printing Technology, IFAC-PapersOnLine, 49 (2016) 103-110.
[5] Herzog, V. Seyda, E. Wycisk, C. Emmelmann, Additive manufacturing of metals, Acta Materialia, 117 (2016) 371-392.
[6] Faes, H. Valkenaers, F. Vogeler, J. Vleugels, E. Ferraris, Extrusion-based 3D Printing of Ceramic Components, Procedia CIRP, 28 (2015) 76-81.
[7] Ning, W. Cong, Y. Hu, H. Wang, Additive manufacturing of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic composites using fused deposition modeling: Effects of process parameters on tensile properties, Journal of Composite Materials, 51(4) (2016) 451-462.
[8] Ning, W. Cong, J. Qiu, J. Wei, S. Wang, Additive manufacturing of carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites using fused deposition modeling, Composites Part B: Engineering, 80 (2015) 369-378.
[9] Perrot, D. Rangeard, A. Pierre, Structural built-up of cement-based materials used for 3D-printing extrusion techniques, Materials and Structures, 49(4) (2016) 1213-1220.
[10] T. Cantrell, S. Rohde, D. Damiani, R. Gurnani, L. DiSandro, J. Anton, A. Young, A. Jerez, D. Steinbach, C. Kroese, P. Ifju, Experimental Characterization of the Mechanical Properties of 3D Printed ABS and Polycarbonate Parts, in, 2016.
[11] S. Rohde, J. Cantrell, A. Jerez, C. Kroese, D. Damiani, R. Gurnani, L. DiSandro, J. Anton, A. Young, D. Steinbach, P. Ifju, Experimental Characterization of the Shear Properties of 3D–Printed ABS and Polycarbonate Parts, Experimental Mechanics, 58(6) (2018) 871-884.
[12] Torrado, C. Shemelya, J. English, Y. Lin, R. Wicker, D. Roberson, Characterizing the Effect of Additives to ABS on the Mechanical Property Anisotropy of Specimens Fabricated by Material Extrusion 3D Printing, Additive Manufacturing, 6 (2015).
[13] Rankouhi, S. Javadpour, F. Delfanian, T. Letcher, Failure Analysis and Mechanical Characterization of 3D Printed ABS with Respect to Layer Thickness and Orientation, Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention, 16(3) (2016) 467-481.
[14] Rodriguez, J. Thomas, J. Renaud, Mechanical behavior of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) fused deposition materials. Experimental investigation, Rapid Prototyping Journal, 7 (2001) 148-158.
[15] Cress, J. Huynh, E. Anderson, R. O’neill, Y. Schneider, Ö. Keleş, Effect of recycling on the mechanical behavior and structure of additively manufactured acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), Journal of Cleaner Production, 279 (2020) 123689.
[16] Zhang, L. Cai, M. Golub, Y. Zhang, X. Yang, K. Schlarman, J. Zhang, Tensile, Creep, and Fatigue Behaviors of 3D-Printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 27(1) (2018) 57-62.
[17] Ziemian, D. Cipoletti, S. Ziemian, M. Okwara, K. Haile, Monotonic and cyclic tensile properties of ABS components fabricated by additive manufacturing, in: Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, 2014, pp. 525-541.
[18] P. Isaac, S. Dondeti, H.V. Tippur, Fracture behavior of additively printed ABS: Effects of print architecture and loading rate, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 212 (2021) 80-95.
[19] Gardan, A. Makke, N. Recho, Improving the fracture toughness of 3D printed thermoplastic polymers by fused deposition modeling, International Journal of Fracture, 210 (2018).
[20] M. Conway, G.J. Pataky, Crazing in additively manufactured acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 211 (2019) 114-124.
[21] D. McLouth, J.V. Severino, P.M. Adams, D.N. Patel, R.J. Zaldivar, The impact of print orientation and raster pattern on fracture toughness in additively manufactured ABS, Additive Manufacturing, 18 (2017) 103-109.
[22] Nazari-Onlaghi, A. Sadeghi, M. Karimpour, Design and manufacture of a micro-tensile testing machine for in situ optical observation and DIC analysis: application to 3D-printed and compression-molded ABS, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 31 (2021) 045016.
[23] Ghadbeigi, C. Pinna, S. Celotto, J.R. Yates, Local plastic strain evolution in a high strength dual-phase steel, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 527(18) (2010) 5026-5032.
[24] A. LaVan, W.N. Sharpe, Tensile testing of microsamples, Experimental Mechanics, 39(3) (1999) 210-216.
[25] Nazari-Onlaghi, A. Sadeghi, M. Karimpour, M. Pekguleryuz, Fracture micro-mechanisms in hot-rolled AZ31 and AZ31-Sr magnesium alloys, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 812 (2021) 141107.
[26] Blaber, B. Adair, A. Antoniou, Ncorr: Open-Source 2D Digital Image Correlation Matlab Software, Experimental Mechanics, 55(6) (2015) 1105-1122.
[27] D. Drozdov, J.d. Christiansen, Cyclic elastoplasticity of solid polymers, Computational Materials Science, 42(1) (2008) 27-35.